The naturalization test is the culmination of the naturalization process, and it can lead someone to U.S. citizenship. Considering how important this process is from a legal standpoint, and how fulfilling this can be from a personal standpoint, it is important for applicants to know what they are getting into before they attend the naturalization test.
There are three parts to the naturalization test that an applicant needs to know about. The first is that you will need to attend an in-person interview with an official at a local U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Office. At this interview, the other two factors will come into play.
There will be a language test to gauge your understanding of the English language. You have to demonstrate your ability to read, write and speak English, with the speaking portion being dealt with by your interviewer. To be sure: you don't have to have a full understanding of English to pass this test. It is more a test of your basic understanding of the language.
The other element during the naturalization test is a civics test. This examines your understanding of the United States as a country -- its laws, functions and processes, and how they all apply to citizens. An example question on this test could be: "who elects the members of Congress?"
Though immigration law is notoriously convoluted and seemingly-absolute, there are plenty of caveats and conditions that could lead to a person being exempt to the immigration and testing process, such as their age or health. In addition, if you fail the test, you can appeal for another attempt.
Source: FindLaw, "What to Expect on the Naturalization Test," Accessed June 15, 2015